STEM Education in Early Childhood: Introducing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Concepts Through Play

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This is a collaborative post.

With so much still to learn in the world and a growing emphasis on the physical application of education, a solid foundation in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is more important than ever. The earlier this foundation is laid the better the outcome for those interested in these multi-faceted fields of study.

STEM education is easy to integrate into early childhood as kids are generally naturally curious about exploring their world. When STEM concepts are introduced through play, we can foster a lifelong love of learning and help children develop essential skills that will serve them throughout their lives.

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The Importance of Early STEM Education

Those who begin interacting with STEM activities at a young age can enjoy boosts to their problem-solving, critical thinking, and analytical skills. Such skills are not just useful for future success in the STEM field if desired, but are also valuable in everyday life.

Additionally, early STEM education can help many children close achievement gaps with their peers. That is because the essential skills learned during this early age can be accessed indiscriminately, regardless of their background or schooling. Australia as a whole has begun to recognise this importance, offering more STEM education scholarships for students who need the support to pursue their education dreams.

Science Through Play

At its core, science is about experimenting, exploring, and discovering new concepts in the world. For young children, this is best initiated through play as it is not just enjoyable, but also provides an intuitive understanding of even complex concepts.

Simple activities children can enjoy to learn about core STEM concepts include:

  • Playing with various materials like water, sand and blocks can introduce key concepts such as cause and effect or gravity.
  • Pouring water into different containers explores volume and measurement.
  • Building toy structures introduces balance and stability into their understanding.
  • Observing flora and fauna in their natural environment can open children’s minds to biology and ecology.

With these simple play actions, children can learn to ask questions, make observations, and draw conclusions. These concepts may seem simple, but they are the foundation for any budding scientist.

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Technology in the Playroom

Science and play do not always have to use raw materials to teach valuable lessons. Technology has slowly become a popular and useful resource in early childhood to explore STEM concepts, creating a new avenue for children to learn. 

Notable examples of technology in the playroom include educational apps and games, programmable robots, and even electronic building blocks. Such technologies have been known to provide the basis for useful skills such as:

  • Problem-solving
  • Logical thinking skills
  • Basic coding
  • Algorithmic thinking
  • Experiments with circuits and motors
  • Interest in creating their own devices
  • And so much more!

Engineering Fun

At first, engineering may seem like a complex area of scientific study that is beyond the scope of children. However, the building blocks of the study can be easily introduced through simple and playful activities children will love. Construction-based toys are a great way to introduce basic engineering principles. Playing with such toys allows children to learn about design, structure, and function as they have fun building their own structures, bridges, and rudimentary machines.

Age and misconceptions about children’s abilities should not prevent children from attempting problem-solving tasks. Rather, they should be encouraged through activities like a marble run or building a tower that can withstand a fan’s force. Such challenges encourage children to not just think creatively, but also plan, test, and iterate their experiments–an altogether engineering-based mindset that can support their educational growth in the future.

Math in Everyday Play

Just like how engineering can be found in even basic concepts of play, so can maths. It is easy to set up games based around sorting and counting objects or playing with shapes. Even everyday tasks like cooking can make maths fun as children learn to measure ingredients and gain a strong sense of numbers among other basic maths principles.

Further maths exploration can be found with the introduction of board and card games that use counting, strategy, and spatial reasoning. Children love to play Snakes and Ladders or Uno, both great examples of play that allow children to learn to recognise patterns, understand sequences, and develop logical thinking skills. Maths does not have to be boring or tedious; it can also be a joy for children to engage with.

teacher schoolCreating a STEM-Friendly Environment

For children to be effectively and joyfully introduced to STEM concepts through play, first an environment of exploration and discovery must be created. Here are some tips for creating a STEM-friendly play space:

Provide a Variety of Materials

Creating any kind of learning environment requires integrating a range of materials that children can use for open-ended play. There are plenty of educational toys that can be beneficial for STEM play, including:

  • Building blocks
  • Natural materials (rocks, leaves, bark, etc)
  • Art supplies
  • Simple machines (pulleys and levers)
  • Any other materials that children have a particular fondness for

Encourage Curiosity

Curiosity is at the heart of STEM so encourage it early on in children. Creating a safe environment to ask questions and explore their interests will grow their curiosity and confidence alike. Foster these interests by engaging in childhood learning structures that support curiosity, such as those that provide opportunities for hands-on experiments and projects.

Incorporate Technology

Where possible, integrate age-appropriate technology into playtime. Tools and toys that encourage exploration and creativity are best suited. However, screen time should be monitored to ensure it is balanced with other types of play; Children aged 2-5 years should have no more than an hour of screen time a day.

Model Enthusiasm

Children often model their behaviour after the role models in their lives, so foster their STEM interests by demonstrating enthusiasm. Share excitement about new discoveries and encourage children to share theirs to create an exciting and happy environment.

Integrate STEM into Daily Activities

Finally, using some of the ideas displayed in this article, find methods to integrate STEM concepts into daily activities. Gardening, cleaning, cooking, and other activities can all be used for teaching moments about measurements, patterns, and processes. Make learning fun and easy!


It is actually fairly easy to introduce STEM concepts in early childhood when they are made fun through play. Initiating this enjoyment in children early on builds a strong foundation for a lifelong love of learning and exploration, allowing them to engage with STEM studies more easily later on in life. Ultimately, xreating a playful, curious, and STEM-friendly environment is key to nurturing the next generation of innovators and problem-solvers.

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